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There are several names for defining snakes , the first of them are the public names which mentioned in language such as Serpents , Coleridge , Alain...

Snakes

There are several names for defining snakes , the first of them are the public names which mentioned in language such as Serpents , Coleridge , Alain , Alosa , cobra , ,

Alaam and the eye , and each of these names have a meaning which distinguished some kinds than others , but the other names of defining snakes as the existence of a certain sign on it or naming it as the name of the place it found in or due to its food , whereas the scientific name or the known Latin name and which called in all families of snakes is a special name as " NAJA – CROTALUS – ELAPHE " .

Fossil history :

Little fossils which referred to snakes had found and showed that the snakes have been found on the earth from about 300 million years , these fossils referred that some snakes have feet but they disappeared with the passage of time till the snakes abandoned on them completely and that assure the existence of bony protrusions called spurs .

The age :

Nothing found to show the age of snakes as other animals , but their ages are estimated according to the studies which performed around the average of snake age since its exit from the egg for life till death , these studies showed that the most of these snakes live for a period ranging between about from ( 15 : 25 ) year approximately .

The method of walking :

There are a different moves for walking with snakes , so there is a lateral sprains and a lateral circumvent and systolic movement m such movements distinguish some kinds than others .

The toxins :

The toxins of snakes are differed according to the diversity of types and the percentages of accidents are vary from one a side to another according to some factors as geographical formation , the number of classes , the public health and the population density and the types of snakes .

The Cicatrix :

Some snakes has a holes above the mouth , these holes which called the cicatrix is a  heat radar as it allows the snake to see at night or in the complete darkness .

The bones :

The snakes have a tall body and distinctive skeleton its vertebrae is ranged from 200 : 400 vertebrae , this formation helps the snake in moving , spinning and swimming  effectively without needing to other parts such as other animals .

The skin :

The bodies of snakes are covered from outside with thick scales , formed of layers  which always renew continuously for protecting the skin ,

The skin in the snakes is divided into three parts as the following :

  1. The upper are with small scales .
  2. A mid separate area with larger scales and a color different than the previous .
  3. A lower area with landscape scales .

The water balance :

Some snakes especially which live in hot places with severe drought , these types has the ability to balance water which existed in its body so as to be patience on drinking for a long period without any effect , and that through the purification of  urine once after another for the maximum benefit of water existing in it .

The classifications of snakes :

It is difficult to classify snakes because there are more foundations , we can depend on in the division and classification , we can consider some of these foundations as the  main pillar of classification , for instance there is a classification according to the toxins existed on the snakes .

The snakes are divided into two parts as the following :

1 – Toxic snakes : and they are divided into two parts as the following :

A )  Snakes with severe toxicity .

B ) Snakes with weak toxicity .

2 – Non- toxic snakes : and they are divided into two parts as the following :

A ) Sphincter snakes .

B ) Non-sphincter snakes .

Also we can consider the place of living as a pillar in the classification such as :

  1. Snakes of desert  .
  2. Snakes of stones .
  3. Snakes of trees .
  4. Snakes of ponds and marshes .
  5. Snakes of seas and oceans .

 

The classification may be according the existence of canines as the following :

  1. Snakes without canines .
  2. Snakes with interior and moved canines .
  3. Snakes with interior and fixed canines .
  4. Snakes with backwards canines .

 

The nutrition of snakes :

In general we can see that the snakes are feeding on all thing on the earth from insects , reptile , birds , mammals , eggs even fish and the man if necessary , the snakes follow in its nutrition a certain system as it did not eat a daily meals , as some kinds did not eat for a long periods that may reach to a year or more without being affected by that , if the snake want to reach to his food it must follow the following steps as the following :

1 – Searching for the prey :

When the snake feels hungry , it searches for a prey that fit its size whatever its type whether from Rodents , birds or reptiles , and we find the snake's tongue moved with a breakneck speed referring to the existence of  a huge meal , the snake will lurk with the prey and approach towards it with silence and carefully to reach for a space which it can swoop it .

2 – Arresting the prey :

The snake just waiting the suitable chance to arrest the prey as the latter couldn't hurt the snake then it will round it and compress till its deaths if it is non – toxic snake or with weak toxicity , but the snakes with high toxicity , will inject the prey with poison in no time , then it will leave it to die .

3 – The swallow of the prey :

The snake will commence to swallow the prey which may exceed its size as the snakes have the ability to eat things exceeds its size several times and that for the elasticity of jaw's bone and the ability to pull the skin which covered its body , the most of snakes commenced to eat the prey starting with the head but some of it did not care for that especially if the prey with a small size for the snake .

4 – Push the prey for stomach and commencing digestion process :

After swallowing the prey , the snake will move to the right and to the left to push the prey to the region of stomach and after its stability , the process of digestion will commence and the poison of the snake and the secretions of the stomach will help on it the digestion process may last for hours or days .

5 - The output of wastes :

There are two methods for the snake which enable it to expose the wastes from its body , the regular way from the anus or through the mouth and that for the large bodies , husks and nails which the stomach of the snake can't digest .

The multiplication of the snakes :

The snakes have the ability for reproduction with different methods , we can divide these methods as the following :

  • OVIPAROUS .
  • OVOVIVIPAROUS .
  • VIVIPAROUS .
  • REAL BIRTH .

 

The process of multiplication with the snakes has certain rituals and ceremonies , and it can not married except after finishing it , these ceremonies are :

The over wintering :

The snakes are gathered usually in one of  crevices or caves to spend the winter period or what we called the Over wintering , this process is very important for snakes as it responsible for the activation of multiplication hormone of the snakes .

The phase of request and showing the force :

After the winter passes , the snakes will exit from their terriers , and the first thing that it will do is to change its cloths then the ceremonies of marriage will commence by showing their muscles for males as the latter will fight with each others in Wrestling which is similar to the ballet dance and each of them is trying to fall the other till the escape of one of them then the victor will direct to the female that will accept to marry it after this battle .

The phase of marriage :

The connection will be proceeded between male and female that the latter exceeds the male in size and this process may last for several hours to separate them on others , then the process of egg formation will be commenced with the female .

The phase of putting eggs :

After several days of alienation , the female will search for nest to put the eggs in , the heat and moisture might be available and they also are required to hatch the eggs , as it will find the suitable place , then it will commence to put the eggs which its number is differed from one kind to another , but in the average it reaches to 25 egg .

The incubation of eggs :

The snakes are unsocial animals as it did not leave in a family system , when it puts the eggs , it will leave it to hatch without any care of it , but some kinds guards the eggs till hatching and till the exit of the young snakes then it will leave them to live without any care from the mother .

The hatching of the eggs :

After the hatching of the eggs which lasts for about six months , the young snakes will commence to exit for life depending on their selves , and the young snakes will be as the old snakes exactly as if the old snake is toxic , the young will be similar to it .

The beginning of life :

The snakes will exit for life with a lot of troubles as there are a lot of enemies for snakes also the environment is cruel on them in addition to the diseases that they may expose to and the trouble of getting out the eggs as the remaining of them will be few number to complete its life cycle .

The poison of the snake :

The poison of the snake is composed of different materials and agents that gather in a certain place in the head called the tank of the poison .

The poisons are differed from one kind to another according to the type of the snake and its size and living place , we can divide the poisons into four kinds as the following :

  •  Poisons with impact on blood platelets and walls of blood vessels .
  • Poisons with impact on nerves .
  • Poisons with impact on muscles .
  • Poisons with external impacts .

 

The most important impacts of such poisons as the following :

  • Accurate headache .
  • Dizziness .
  • Feeling with Nausea .
  • Severe pain in the abdomen .
  • Chills and sweats .
  • The external diagnosis results from the impacts of these poisons in the body .

 

The protection :

  • Don't walk in the places which the snakes exists without wearing suitable shoes .
  • Don't sit around ponds and marshes at the evening .
  • Don't still the stones and don't put your hand on burrows except after making sure that it is free of dangerous creatures .
  • Don't besiege the snake or harass it as it may hurt you .
  • Don't try to catch any snake to make sure of its death and avoid to touch it with your hand as you may be hurt even the snake is dead .
  • Make sure that the bag of first aid with you anywhere .

 

The chemical control :

- Using repellent materials in the places which the snake is hide on .

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