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The control of flying insects ( house fly )

The common name of house fly is “ Musca Domestica “ spreads and lives with the human all over the world .

The house fly feeds on food and wastes of human , and transfers many types of diseases among human beings such as “ Eye Diseases and Infectious Diseases “ .

 

The behavior and the life of house fly :

The life cycle :

The house fly is passing 4 stages in its life cycle :

 

  • ( the eggs  -  the larvae ( worm ) –the virgin (Chrysalis ) – the full insect ) .
  • The life cycle lasts for 2 : 42 day since putting the eggs till the exit of the full insect according to the prevailing temperatures .
  • The house fly is living about from 2 : 3 weeks ( under the normal circumstances ) and may last for 3 months in cold climates .
  • The female puts the eggs with quantities on the natural wastes such as the dung and garbage .
  • The young larvae will dig downward after coming out from the eggs and it will depend on breathing the air passing the organic materials ( dry organic materials ) .
  • In case of the wet of organic materials , the larva can live on the surface .
  • The larvae will pass 3 stages of alienations and be long and white without feet and this stage will last from 3 days to several weeks according to ( type - temperature –the quantity of available food ) .
  • After completing the stage of alienation , the larvae will leave its place to a dry place hiding in the sand or down things for protection and then it will turn to virgin ( the Chrysalis ) and this stage will last from 2 : 10 days .
  • The virgin ( the Chrysalis ) will turn to the whole insect within 3 : 7 days .
  • When the female arrive to the sexual phase , the single female can put eggs for five times during its life and put about 120 : 130 egg at one time .

 

The nutrition :

  • The house fly ( male – female ) feeds on all kinds of human food , natural and organic wastes , garbage , dung and sugar materials .
  • The house fly excreted the salvia on food in order to turn it to easy absorption materials .
  • The house fly can’t live without water for more than 48 hours .
  • The house fly feeds from 2 : 3 times per day .

 

Places of reproduction :

-The females will put the eggs on the rotten , putrefying and fermented materials  whether

“ animal or vegetable “ such as :

  1. The dung .
  2. The wastes of manufacturing and garbage .
  3. The organic wastes .
  4. The sewage water .
  5. The agricultural wastes .

 

The places of rest

A )  In the morning :

During the period of non-feeding “ before midday till afternoon “ , the house fly will have rest on floors , walls , ceilings “ inside buildings “ or on floors – fences –walls - the thresholds–the external toilets , garbage bins , washing ropes and green surfaces and it is near of nutrition , places of reproduction and protection of wind .

The flies are always from the above level of the land till the height of 5 meters .

 

The impact of weather factors on the enumeration and activity of house fly :

The enumeration and activity of house fly affects with the following factors :

  1. The availability of the places of reproduction .
  2. The number of sunshine hours .
  3. Temperature and moisture “ the highest activity and enumeration on 20 : 25 Degrees Celsius .
  4. The flies are stopping on the activity and the enumeration reducing higher than 45 degree and less than 10 Degrees Celsius .
  5. At low temperatures “ less than 10 Degrees Celsius “ the kinds of flies stay a live “ the inert status “ during the life cycle “ the whole insect – the virgin stage “ .

 

The behavior and the spread of house flies :

  • During the hours of the day , the house flies will gather on and around the places of reproduction and food and that for rest and for putting eggs .
  • The spread of house flies is affected with the light , heat , moisture , the shape and color of surfaces .
  • The optimum temperature for the rest of house flies is between 35 : 45 Degrees Celsius .
  • On the temperature less than 15 Degrees Celsius , the processes of putting eggs , alienation and nutrition will stop .
  • On the temperature higher than 20 Degrees Celsius , the house fly will be on the top of its activity and will stay most of the timein the external shady areas .
  • During the period of non-feeding , the flies have a rest on the horizontal surface or stuck with wire or on vertical surfaces inside the buildings especially at the evening .

 

The house fly and transferring diseases to the human :

  • When the house fly feeds on the human nutrition and the organic wastes , the Pathogens will stuck on the external size of the fly , these Pathogens will remain alive for several hours and then cause the infection .
  • ThePathogens which enter with food inside the giblet or the lung of the house fly will still alive for several days .
  • the infection will happen through the Pathogens after occurring a direct connection between the man and his food as a direct pollution will happen to the food , water and air and it will be transferred from one person to another through the house fly .
  • the house fly transfers several diseases to the human being like intestinal diseases such as “Dysentery -  Diarrhea - Typhoid - Cholera “ and eye diseases such as “Trachoma –EpidemicOphthalmology - Polio - Skin infection - Khalaj disease - Diphtheria Dermatology - Dimples – Leprosy “ .

 

The methods of controlling house fly :

Firstly :The biological control :

  • The biological traps for flies .
  • The adhesive tapes for flies .
  • Light and thunderbolt traps for flies .

 

The chemical control :

By using the pesticides which authorized by the Ministry of Health .

A ) Treating the internal places :

This treatment is successful and effective for the rapid reduction for the enumeration of flies .

B ) Treating the external places :

- This method is used for treating wide areas .

- The treatment  will occur during the maximum activity period in the morning .

- In this treatment we use the instrument of ULV .

C ) The direct spraying on gatherings of flies :

- This method is used on wastes , landfills and piles of garbage through the direct spray on gatherings of flies .

- In this method the disposal of flies larvae and the whole insect  is processed .

D ) Treating the places of reproduction through the pesticides of flies larvae :

This method is used mainly to spray the dung on the fields with periodically and continuously method because of the pilling up of the dung in layers to ease the breakthrough of the pesticide of the dung layers and the safe distribution in order to get rid of the flies larvae .

 

The protective control :

  • The personal cleaning , healthy behaviors and keeping the environment .
  • The rapid disposal of wastes and garbage which the flies are reproduced in , and taking care of safe boxes made of plastics or metal with tight covers , and exiting the bags of garbage daily after closing them tightly for a places which the garbage is collected as the cars of collection will assume the task of lifting them then get rid of the previous garbage in a safe and healthy methods .
  • Taking care with the buildings of industrial drainage also concerning with its maintenance continuously to ensure the non spill of any materials which may attract flies to it .
  • placing metallic nets with precise openings on doors and windows and ventilating openings to prevent the entry of flies .
  • The nutrition materials might be kept in a clean package closed tightly and put the landfills to protect the open parts from flies .
  • It is possible to dismiss the adult flies from the rooms through blocking the external lights and let only to an opening of light to enter the room as this process will attract flies to go out the room .
  • In case of breeding animals or domestic animals at houses , the healthy conditions is required to prepare and clean the places of breeding and collecting garbage and get rid of them directly as it considered the most important place for the reproduction of flies .
  • In case of putting local fertilize on the garden of the house , it is important to spray it into soft layers as that will cause the death of the larvae and the eggs and prevent transferring to whole insects after that .
  • Using the traps which attract the insects and it is preferred to use the kinds which contain pesticide or adhesive material on it , and there are traps for putting eggs which contain ammonium carbonate with a percentage of ( 10 : 20 % ) for attracting flies to put eggs on it then get rid of it after that .
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